Similar to much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate Cfb with mild-warm summers, cool winters, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.
Dublin's sheltered location on the east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland, receiving only about half the rainfall of the west coast. The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn. These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location, it is least affected compared to other parts of the country.
However, in winter, easterly winds render the city colder and more prone to snow showers. In the 20th century, smog and air-pollution were an issue in the city, precipitating a ban on bituminous fuels across Dublin. Since the ban, non-trauma death rates, respiratory death rates and cardiovascular death rates have declined — by an estimated deaths annually. Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin Castle , which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of England's King John in , shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in , when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King's treasure.
Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence. One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin , officially entitled the "Monument of Light. It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects ,  who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology".
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The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city. The Ha'penny Bridge , an iron footbridge over the River Liffey, is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks. Other sights include the Anna Livia monument. The Poolbeg Towers are also landmark features of Dublin, and visible from various spots around the city. There are many green-spaces around the city, and Dublin City Council manages over 1, hectares 3, acres of parks.
Music concerts are also sometimes held in the park. St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street , and to a shopping centre named for it , while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies. Saint Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf , both suburbs on the Northside. The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former 2-square-kilometre 0.
The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In , Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income. A number of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since Economic improvements in the s attracted a number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin Area.
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The presence of these companies has driven economic expansion in the city and led to Dublin sometimes being referred to as the "Tech Capital of Europe". Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre in More than operations are approved to trade under the IFSC programme.
The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies. Dublin has been positioned as one of the main cities vying to host Financial Services companies hoping to retain access to the Eurozone after Brexit. The Celtic Tiger also led to a temporary boom in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock.
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In the second quarter of , Dublin touched its lowest unemployment rate in a decade, when it fell down to 5. The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway , a semi- ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the country. In , the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration.
The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel , which officially opened in to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal , as well as the North and South Circular Roads.
The TomTom Traffic Index ranked Dublin the 15th most congested city in the world and the 7th most congested in Europe. Dublin is served by a network of nearly bus routes which cover the city and suburbs. The majority of these are provided by Dublin Bus , with a modest number having been transferred to Go Ahead Ireland in , but a number of smaller companies also operate.
Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled.
There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. Electronically displayed signs relay information about the time of the next buses arrival based on its GPS determined position. The National Transport Authority is responsible for integration of bus and rail services in Dublin and has been involved in introducing a pre-paid smart card, called a Leap card , which can be used on all of Dublin's public transport services. The Census showed that 5.
Dublinbikes is a self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin since Sponsored by JCDecaux and Just Eat , the scheme consists of hundreds of unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre. Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card or purchase a three-day ticket.
Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway termini in Dublin. Dublin once had an extensive system of trams but this was largely phased out by Together these lines comprise a total 67 stations and A metro service is proposed under the name of Metrolink , and planned to run from Dublin's northside to Sandyford via Dublin Airport and St. Stephen's Green , with construction projected to start after The headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus and regional airlines Stobart Air and CityJet are located there, and those of low-cost carrier Ryanair nearby.
The airport offers a short and medium haul network, domestic services to regional airports in Ireland, and long-haul services to the United States, Canada, the Middle East and Hong Kong. Dublin Airport is the 11th busiest in the European Union,  and by far the busiest airport on the island of Ireland. From to , Dublin Airport saw an increase of nearly 9. Dublin is also served by Weston Airport and other small facilities, by a range of helicopter operators, and the military and some State services use Casement Aerodrome nearby.
Dublin is the largest centre of education in Ireland, and is home to four universities and a number of other higher education institutions. It was the European Capital of Science in The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland, dating from the 16th century, and is located in the city centre. It was closed to Roman Catholics until , and the Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending until Founded in , it is now the largest university in Ireland.
As of , Dublin's principal, and Ireland's largest, institution for technological education and research, Dublin Institute of Technology DIT , with origins in , has merged with two major suburban third level institutions, Institute of Technology, Tallaght and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown , to form Technological University Dublin , Ireland's second largest university by student population.
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The new university offers a wide range of courses in areas include engineering, architecture, the sciences, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality, business, art and design, music and the humanities programmes, and has three long-term campuses, at Grangegorman , Tallaght and Blanchardstown. Dublin is also home to the Royal Irish Academy , membership of which is considered Ireland's highest academic honour. The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast.
Together, the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. This area is sometimes known as the Dublin Region. The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was , in the census,  while the population of the urban area was 1,, The area's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistics Office that it will reach 2. After World War Two, Italians were by far the largest immigrant group in both Dublin and Ireland and became synonymous with the catering and restaurant landscape.
Dublin is home to a greater proportion of newer arrivals than any other part of the country. Sixty percent of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin. The capital attracts the largest proportion of non-Catholic migrants from other countries.
According to the census, the population of Dublin was Additionally, 2. It is also the location of key and notable works of James Joyce , including Ulysses , which is set in Dublin and includes much topical detail. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Other renowned writers include J. The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and also opens its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films.
The Abbey was founded in by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge , Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw.
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