The mound seen in this picture is the original Hill 16, then known as Hill Michael Collins, pictured here in Two police paramilitaries were also fatally shot, as well as one member of the Royal Irish Constabulary RIC , a civilian landlord, one man who was most likely a civilian , and another man whose exact role remains unknown. Five others were injured.
That afternoon, shortly after a friendly match between Dublin and Tipperary kicked off, a number of Black and Tans and Auxiliaries arrived at Croke Park.
These were paramilitaries recruited in as reinforcements for the RIC, who were starting to buckle under the pressure of the armed insurgency in Ireland. Their ranks consisted of mostly ex-British Army soldiers. Historian DM Leeson describes the activities Black and Tans as more static — patrolling areas and defending police stations — than the Auxiliaries, who were offensive in their role. What happened next was essentially a search operation gone wrong, as the British Army hoped to find members of The Squad hiding out in the crowd.
The paramilitaries opened fire on civilians in Croke Park. Source: National Library of Ireland. Speaking to TheJournal. The British plan was for military troops to seal off each exit of the stadium, and for the police to enter and search the crowd. The Dublin team, pictured here on Bloody Sunday. Source: GAA Museum.
The Tipperary team on Bloody Sunday. This jars with the already largely dispelled accusation that the first shots came from the crowd, which was used initially as justification for the violence. It was initially claimed there were IRA scouts outside — these men were actually ticket sellers. The Auxiliaries and Black and Tans had already gained a reputation for violence against civilians — for example in the Sack of Balbriggan just two months previously. The sense of the panic that gripped the spectators, and the brutal nature of the deaths, were revealed in eyewitness reports recorded years later.
This includes details of how people jumping into the nearby Royal Canal to escape were fired on by paramilitaries while in the water. Another clip was from Tom Ryan, a Tipperary player who was beside his team captain who was fatally shot — Michael Hogan, after whom the Hogan stand was named:. The Hogan Stand, named after Michael Hogan. Source: Wikimedia Commons. This ranges from a description of the stampede which followed the shooting, the looting of items lost in the panic, and a visit to the stadium by US journalists and members of The Labour Party, who saw pools of dried blood.
This following extract described the death of a young boy, and was provided by researchers at the britishnewspaperarchive. In order for anyone who took part in activities with organisations like the IRA or the Irish Volunteers to be awarded a pension for their service, they were required to apply to the pensions board and provide detailed information of their activities. More than applications mention Bloody Sunday, with the full list available here.
He too applied for a pension - and Leonard himself submitted a letter lambasting Hogan for his actions on Bloody Sunday:. Source: MSPC. Click here to see a larger version of this image.
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However, the targeting of these two men in the Gresham Hotel was likely the result of poor intelligence, particularly the shooting of Patrick MacCormack. The Gresham Hotel today. Source: Google Maps. An ex-soldier, now a civilian working with a consular office in Spain, is said to have introduced himself to the IRA members as a British intelligence officer, without realising who they actually were.
A member of The Squad, James Bird, lists the eight people involved in the attack. Fourth on this list is J. Norton, referring to James Paul Norton. Open journalism No news is bad news Support The Journal Your contributions will help us continue to deliver the stories that are important to you. View a larger version here. He attempted to stop a truck loaded with British Army by hopping out in front of it outside the Custom House in Dublin, armed with only a revolver.
He was arrested and sent to Dartmoor Prison in England, and was admitted to Grangegorman Mental Hospital just days after he was released in January File photo of an unnamed Black and Tan, pictured here in Source: Wikimedia. The primary result of Bloody Sunday was the groundswell of support it caused for the Republican movement.
Essentially, the British authorities made the same mistake as , when regardless of what way public opinion was swaying immediately after the Rising, their reprisals — the drawn-out executions of republican leaders — turned the tide against them. The shootings at Croke Park as well as the later killing of three republican prisoners in Dublin Castle made the British the perpetrators rather than the victims of violence. They were shot and possibly tortured by British authorities that evening. It also fed into the growing awareness of the brutal actions of some in the British Army.
Just a year and a half earlier, the world learned of the Amritsar massacre in India, when the British Indian Army killed almost people and injured more than 1, more. David Lloyd George, pictured here in Source: PA. Not only was this a win for those leading the fight for Irish independence at home and abroad, but it was a morale booster for those fighting on the ground. The British were making inroads, Moore said, and it was an increasingly tough battle, but the combined events of that day gave the IRA a better resolve to continue.
A simple example of this is the renaming of Hill 60, originally commemorating the Irishmen who died fighting with the Connaught Rangers, a British Army regiment, on a hill with the same title in Gallipoli during World War I, to what is now known as Hill 16, after the Rising. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. You can obtain a copy of the Code, or contact the Council, at www. Please note that TheJournal. For more information on cookies please refer to our cookies policy.
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We take a look at the events of that day, using newspaper reports and archive material.
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